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Ankle-Foot Outcome Measures

Ankle-Hindfoot Outcome score

 AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale

AOFAS Midfoot Scale

AOFAS Midfoot Scale

AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP scale

AOFAS Hallux, MTP, IP Scale

Kaikkonen Score image Kaikkonen Score
  • Scoring scale consisting of subjective assessment of the symptoms and function of the injured ankle, four functional tests (one for balance, two for muscle strength and endurance, and one for functional stability), and clinical evaluation of the joint laxity and the ROM in dorsiflexion.
  • Kaikkonen A, AJSM, 1994;22: 462


  • Olerud score Olerud C, Molander H. A scoring scale for symptom evaluation after ankle fracture. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 1984;103: 190-4.
  • Calcaneal fracture scoring system (Kerr PS, Injury 1996;27:35)
  • Foot Function Index (Budiman-Mak E, J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44:561)
  • Baltimore Painful Foot Score (Mulier T, Foot Ankle Int 2002;23:902)

MFA Instrument

  • Engelberg R, Martin DP, Agel J, Obremsky W, Coronado G, Swiontkowski MF. Musculoskeletal Function Assessment instrument: criterion and construct validity. J Orthop Res, 1996;14: 182-92.
  • Martin DP, Engelberg R, Agel J, Snapp D, Swiontkowski MF. Development of a musculoskeletal extremity health status instrument: the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment instrument. J Orthop Res, 1996;14: 173-81.


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