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Normal Limb Alignment

Mechanical axis of Lower extremity

Mechanical Axis Measurements

Average Anatomic Joint Line Measurements

  • Metatarsus adductus
  • Persistent normal internal tibial torsion
  • Excessive frmoral anteversion


  • Average infant's tibia is internally rotated 5° Average 10y/o has 10° external rotation.
  • Infants have varus knees whtihc straighten to neurtal position by 18 months, progress to maximal valgus by age 2-3 years. Then remodel to physiologic valgus of 6° -7° by age 8.


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